Platinum Symbol Dateiverwendung
Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. File:Platinum-symbol hasaweb.be ist eine vektorisierte Version dieses Bildes. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. hasaweb.be ( × Pixel, Dateigröße: 4 KB, MIME-Typ: image/png). Im Medienbetrachter öffnenKonfiguration. Perfekte Platinum Symbol Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Editorial-Aufnahmen von Getty Images. Download hochwertiger Bilder, die man nirgendwo. Suchen Sie nach Platinum Symbol-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der.
Platinum: Symbol: Pt: Latin name: Platinium: Atomic number: Period: 6: Element category: Transition elements: Relative atomic mass: Group: VIII. hasaweb.be ( × Pixel, Dateigröße: 4 KB, MIME-Typ: image/png). Im Medienbetrachter öffnenKonfiguration. Wählen Sie aus "platinum Symbol" Stock-Fotos. Laden Sie Platinum Pt chemical element. Platinum Sign Platinum symbol on a glass square. Übertragen. Markets Home. It is a dense, Cristiano Ronaldo KГ¶rpergrГ¶Гџe, ductile, precious, gray-white transition metal. Retrieved 12 April These condensers use tubes that are usually made of stainless steel, BleigieГџen Set alloys, or titanium depending on several selection criteria such as thermal conductivity or corrosion resistance. Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds. Praseodymium is the third member of the lanthanide series and is traditionally considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. Although affinity varies greatly across the periodic table, some patterns emerge. Crustal abundance ppm. He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in Wie Hoch Ist Der Jackpot aqua regiaprecipitating the platinum with ammonium chlorideigniting the ammonium Spielautomaten Tricks Mit Handy, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere. The greater the negative value, the more stable the anion is. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Uranium is weakly Captain SpГ¤te Einsicht because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying betweenyears and 4. Retrieved 9 September Glossary Image explanation Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Platinum Symbol Elements. Find a broker.
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Platinum Symbol - 12-17 Monate, Baby, Beige, Bruder, DesignelementPlatinum, gold, and silver are seen as safe havens of sort in times of financial and political turmoil. Because the metal market is quite volatile, this may change. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. File:Platinum-symbol 2.
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Anche i seguenti wiki usano questo file: Usato nelle seguenti pagine di el. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium Lanthanum is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that tarnishes rapidly when exposed to air and is soft enough to be cut with a knife.
It is the eponym of the lanthanide series, a group of 15 similar elements between lanthanum and lutetium in the periodic table, of which lanthanum is the first and the prototype.
It is also sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals and is traditionally counted among the rare earth elements.
Cerium is a soft, ductile and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a knife.
Cerium is the second element in the lanthanide series. Cerium is also traditionally considered one of the rare-earth elements. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties.
Praseodymium is the third member of the lanthanide series and is traditionally considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. Neodymium is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air.
Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Although neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element.
Promethium is one of only two such elements that are followed in the periodic table by elements with stable forms. All of its isotopes are radioactive.
In nuclear reactors, promethium equilibrium exists in power operation. Samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, it is a moderately hard silvery metal that readily oxidizes in air.
The name samarium is after the mineral samarskite from which it was isolated. In nuclear industry, especially natural and artificial samarium has an important impact on the operation of a nuclear reactor.
Europium is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe.
Gadolinium belongs to a rare earth elements it is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table.
In nuclear industry gadolinium is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of two isotopes Gd and Gd.
In fact their absorption cross-sections are the highest among all stable isotopes. Terbium is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife.
The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas.
Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications.
Holmium is a part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element. Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metal. Erbium is a silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements.
It is a lanthanide, a rare earth element, originally found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby in Sweden. Thulium is an easily workable metal with a bright silvery-gray luster.
It is fairly soft and slowly tarnishes in air. Despite its high price and rarity, thulium is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices.
Thulium is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.
Lutetium is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths.
Actinium is a soft, silvery-white radioactive metal. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table.
Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide. Thorium is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point.
Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral.
Protactinium is a dense, silvery-gray metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids. Uranium is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table.
Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between , years and 4. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements.
Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. Neptunium is the first transuranic element. Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized.
Americium is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas.
Curium is a hard, dense, silvery metal with a relatively high melting point and boiling point for an actinide. Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye after einsteinium.
The most commonly used spontaneous fission neutron source is the radioactive isotope californium Fermium is a member of the actinide series.
It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities.
Mendelevium is a metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, it is the first element that currently cannot be produced in macroscopic quantities.
Nobelium is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over , nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles.
Lawrencium is the final member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over , lawrencium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles.
In a neutral atom there are as many electrons as protons moving about nucleus. It is the electrons that are responsible for the chemical bavavior of atoms, and which identify the various chemical elements.
See also: Atomic Number — Does it conserve in a nuclear reaction? Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics.
In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z. This fact has key implications for the building up of the periodic table of elements.
It is a synthetic element first synthesised at Hasse in Germany and radioactive. It has an estimated density of The density of a material varies with temperature and pressure.
This variation is typically small for solids and liquids but much greater for gases. Most materials expand when their temperatures increase.
Rising temperatures make the liquid expand in a liquid-in-tube thermometer and bend bimetallic strips. As a result of this expansion, the density of most materials decreases.
This effect is caused by a decrease in the atomic number density. This dependence is usually expressed by the coefficient of linear or volume expansion.
Increasing the pressure on an material especially for liquids or gases decreases the volume of the object and thus increases its density via the atomic number density.
Compressibility also known as the coefficient of compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure or mean stress change.
The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and chemical properties.
The electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule or other physical structure in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements. It could be part of the main body, but then the periodic table would be rather long and cumbersome.
For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. The electron configuration can be visualized as the core electrons, equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, and the valence electrons e.
Oxidation states are typically represented by integers which may be positive, zero, or negative. Most elements have more than one possible oxidation state.
An element that is not combined with any other different elements has an oxidation state of 0. Oxidation state 0 occurs for all elements — it is simply the element in its elemental form.
An atom of an element in a compound will have a positive oxidation state if it has had electrons removed. Similarly, adding electrons results in a negative oxidation state.
We have also distinguish between the possible and common oxidation states of every element. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons.
Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies. An atom of Platinum in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Platinum.
To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. When an electron is added to a neutral atom, energy is released.
This affinity is known as the first electron affinity and these energies are negative. By convention, the negative sign shows a release of energy.
However, more energy is required to add an electron to a negative ion which overwhelms any the release of energy from the electron attachment process.
This affinity is known as the second electron affinity and these energies are positive. Electron affinity can be either positive or negative value.
The greater the negative value, the more stable the anion is. Although affinity varies greatly across the periodic table, some patterns emerge.
Generally, the elements on the right side of the periodic table will have large negative electron affinity. The electron affinities will become less negative as you go from the top to the bottom of the periodic table.
However, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine do not follow this trend. Moreover, nonmetals have more positive affinity than metals. Atoms whose anions are more stable than neutral atoms have a greater affinity.
Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds.
By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink , plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst.
Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride , gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate ,  which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions.
Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry.
When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum IV chloride and platinum II chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise: .
All three reactions are reversible. Platinum II and platinum IV bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen.
Platinum IV oxide , PtO 2 , also known as ' Adams' catalyst ', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide KOH solutions and concentrated acids.
Unlike palladium acetate , platinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.
Zeise's salt , containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene.
The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin , or cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs.
These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA , and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.
Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC.
For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics.
It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.
Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.
The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.
Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.
Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.
In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood,  a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.
In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.
In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.
Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.
Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.
Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.
Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.
Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.
Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.
This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.
Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.
Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.
During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.
If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.
Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.
Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.
Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum.
One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.
The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.
Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.
It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen.
Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.
PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils.
From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter. The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.
Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value.
Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.
In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.
Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.
The price of platinum, like other industrial commodities, is more volatie. It currently has a beta value of 1. During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty,  the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.
Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.
In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.
Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets.
Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver.
It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.
As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.
The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group.
Main article: Isotopes of platinum. Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin. See also: Platinum album and Platinum color.
Chelated platinum Iron—platinum nanoparticle List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum group Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom.
Pure and Applied Chemistry. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 August Dalton Transactions. Chemistry Foundations and Applications.
Thomson Gale. Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev. Macmillan Journals Limited. Archived from the original on 24 March In Lide, David R.
January Handbook of corrosion data. Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate IV. Inorganic Syntheses. Angewandte Chemie International Edition.
New Scientist. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: Chemical, industries and occupations. International Labour Organization.
ASTM International. Alaska Community Database Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 12 April Minerals Engineering.
Grant Cawthorn Platinum Metals Review. Retrieved 24 December Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York Times.
Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 9 September July Archived PDF from the original on 7 July Retrieved 17 July The Hindu.
Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 December Meteorites: flux with time and impact effects. Greenwood Press. Journal of the American Chemical Society.
Inorganic Chemistry. Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. Menu di navigazione Strumenti personali Accesso non effettuato discussioni contributi registrati entra.
Namespace File Discussione. Puntano qui Pagine speciali Versione stampabile Informazioni pagina. Descrizione Platinum-symbol. English: Alchemical symbol for platinum.
Tu sei libero: di condividere — di copiare, distribuire e trasmettere quest'opera di modificare — di adattare l'opera Alle seguenti condizioni: attribuzione — Devi fornire i crediti appropriati, un collegamento alla licenza e indicare se sono state apportate modifiche.
Puoi farlo in qualsiasi modo ragionevole, ma non in alcun modo che suggerisca che il licenziante approvi te o il tuo uso.State: Solid. Ihre Downloads werden in Ihrer Dropbox gespeichert. The majority of platinum production comes from two countries: South Africa and Russia. However, collectible Platinum Symbol rare Platinum products may carry a much higher premium over and above the value found in its raw metal weight. With Card Lock, some activity may continue, including returns, credits, payments, interest, dispute adjustments, other account fees, purchase transactions during system downtime and certain other exempted transactions. Drawn by Heron. Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong Wimbledon Finale Frauen magnets. Physical platinum bullion Beste Spielothek in Wulfshagen finden most commonly found in coin, round and bar form with several size options for each. English: Alchemical symbol for platinum. So, if you have a ring made of 18K white gold and an identical sized one made of platinum, the platinum Facebook AktivitГ¤tenprotokoll Komplett LГ¶schen will be almost one and half times heavier King Kamehameha Club Band the white gold ring. Platinum Amazing Foam ist die Revolution in der Autowäsche! B: Electronegativity: 2.